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亚化咨询:可降解塑料行业发展现状与石油化工/煤化工企业机遇

2019-03-04

 

l  2019可降解塑料技术与市场论坛将于424-25日在云南昆明召开

l  可降解塑料政策发展趋势与市场机遇将是会议探讨重点

l  会议还将探讨石化/煤化路线制可降解塑料——聚乙醇酸(PGA)、PBSPCL

 

可降解塑料可分为破坏性可降解塑料和完全可降解塑料,前者通过在传统的石油基塑料生产过程中添加一定量的添加剂,使其容易分解,但仅仅是分解成体积更小的石油基塑料,无法完全回归自然,其降解特性逐渐被否定,目前说的可降解塑料主要是完全可降解塑料。

 

完全可降解塑料在特定环境下可以完全降解,其原料可以是100%生物质资源,也可以是传统化石能源。

 

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由生物质制得的可降解材料主要有聚乳酸(PLA)、聚羟基脂肪酸酯(PHA)、全淀粉基、纤维素等;由煤/石油等化石能源制得的可降解材料主要有二元酸二元醇共聚酯系列(包括PBSPBATPBSA)、聚己内酯(PCL)、聚乙醇酸(PGA)、聚乙烯醇(PVA)和CO2共聚物基于生物质的PBS降解材料也在研究中。

 

传统的一次性塑料制品,使用寿命较短,但物化性质稳定,自然降解难,大量一次性塑料制品废弃物导致的各类环境问题频出,已经严重危害到土地、水体及动物、人类的健康安全。联合国环境规划署(UNEP)调查结果显示,已有至少67个国家及地区对一次性塑料袋采取限制措施。可降解塑料被认为是解决一次性塑料废弃物污染问题的有效途径。

 

国际

Ø  意大利自2011年起禁止使用非生物降解塑料袋。

 

Ø  2016年,法国通过了全面“禁塑令”,宣布至2020年,除了可降解的塑料制品外,所有一次性不可降解塑料袋和塑料餐具都将被禁止使用。

 

Ø  20184月,澳大利亚8个州、地区以及联邦环境部长签署联合协议,该协议设定了到2025年,在全国范围内实现100%可循环利用、可重复使用或可降解包装的目标。

 

Ø  20185月,西班牙通过了关于限制塑料袋使用的皇家法令,规定71日起西班牙的商家将不能免费为客人提供塑料袋。并且从2021年开始,所有非生物可降解的轻质塑料袋都将被禁止使用。

 

Ø  201812月,美联社报道,奥地利已启动立法,计划禁止所有不可完全降解的袋子。

 

中国

Ø  20174月,科技部印发《“十三五”材料领域科技创新专项规划》,全生物降解材料入围。

 

Ø  201711月,国家邮政总局、国家发改委、科技部等十部门联合发布《关于协同推进快递业绿色包装工作的指导意见》,从国家层面提出了推进快递行业资源节约以及废弃物污染防治的多项措施,提出,“到2020年,可降解的绿色包装材料应用比例将提高到50%”。

 

Ø  201711月,工信部发布《农用薄膜行业规范条件(2017年本)》,鼓励研发生产使用生物降解地膜。

 

Ø  20182月,新版《快递封装用品》系列国家标准发布。新版国标于201891日起实施,首次明确提出“快递包装袋宜采用生物降解塑料”。

 

目前中国在国家层面上对塑料采取的措施仍停留在“限塑”阶段,但鼓励有条件的地区探索“禁塑”,自2014年来,吉林省、河南南乐县、海南省先后出台“禁塑令”,禁止生产、销售、使用不可降解的一次性制品。

 

基于完全可降解塑料目前的生产成本,立法仍是推动其需求增长的最重要的因素,西欧有着世界上对一次性塑料最为严格的立法,是目前降解塑料需求最大的区域,占全球50%以上市场。可降解塑料主要应用领域是食品包装、一次性餐具和塑料袋,对于亚洲地区,农膜也是其主要的终端市场。

 

除了各国在政策方面的支持外,企业的自主环保意识也增强,将有效推动可降解塑料市场增长。2016年,阿里巴巴启动“绿动计划”,目标到2020年,阿里平台50%的包裹替换为完全可降解的包装材料;2017年京东发起“清流计划”,目标到2020年,京东物流50%以上的塑料包装将使用生物降解材料;2018年,星巴克、麦当劳、宜家相继发布公告将全面停用塑料吸管。

 

全球范围内的利好政策和企业及个人环保意识的增强为可降解塑料带来了新的市场机遇。无论是基于生物质路线还是石化路线的可降解材料都有望取得新突破。

 

生物基可降解塑料,主要来自于粮食和微生物,来源可再生,使用后对环境无污染,符合国家可持续发展战略方针,虽然目前的原料成本、技术、设备成本均较高,但随着工艺水平和生产规模的进一步发展,必定会带动成本下降,发展前景明朗;石化/煤化制可降解塑料路线丰富,并且石化/煤化行业对装置放大的经验成熟,通过装置大型化,提高能源综合利用效率,降本潜力巨大,以石化/煤化动辄十万吨甚至上百万吨的布局规模,是可降解塑料产能增长的重要组成部分。


2019可降解塑料技术与市场论坛将于424-25日在云南昆明召开。会议将探讨可降解塑料政策发展趋势与市场机遇,八大可降解塑料—聚乳酸(PLA)、淀粉类(PSM)、聚酯类PBS/PBAT/PBSA)、聚羟基脂肪酸酯PHA)、聚己内酯(PCL)、聚乙醇酸(PGA)、CO2共聚物和聚乙烯醇(PVA—生产技术与成本降低展望,可降解塑料原料多元化与下游应用领域的拓展,可降解塑料完全生物降解条件与机理研究等。

 

 

ASIACHEM: Development Status of Degradable Plastics and Opportunities for Petrochemical/Coal Chemical Enterprises

 

l  Degradable Plastic Technology and Market Forum 2019 will be held on April 24-25 in Kunming, Yunan, China

l  Degradable plastics policy development trends and market opportunities will be an important topic of the forum

l  This forum will also discuss petrochemical/coalization routes for the production of biodegradable plastics ——PGA, PBS, PCL, etc.

 

Degradable plastics can be divided into destructively degradable plastics and fully degradable plastics. The former is easy to decompose by adding a certain amount of additives in the traditional petroleum-based plastics production process, but only decomposes into smaller petroleum bases, plastics cannot be completely returned to nature, and their degradation characteristics are gradually denied. Currently, the degradable plastics mainly refer to fully degradable plastics.

 

Fully degradable plastics can be completely degraded under certain circumstances. The raw materials can be 100% biomass resources or traditional fossil energy sources.

 

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The degradable materials produced from biomass are mainly including polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), whole starch based, cellulose and the like. The degradable materials prepared from fossil energy mainly include dibasic acid glycol copolyester series (including PBS, PBAT, PBSA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polyglycolic acid (PGA), and poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and CO2 copolymers, etc. Biomass-based PBS degradation materials are also under investigation.

 

The traditional disposable plastic products have a short service life, but the physical and chemical properties are stable, and natural degradation is difficult. The various environmental problems caused by a large number of disposable plastic wastes have frequently jeopardized the health and safety of land, water, animals and humans. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) survey, at least 67 countries and regions have imposed restrictions on disposable plastic bags. Degradable plastics are considered to be an effective way to solve the problem of disposable plastic waste pollution.

 

International

Ø  Italy has banned the use of non-biodegradable plastic bags since 2011.

 

Ø  In 2016, France passed a comprehensive “ban on plastics”, announcing that by 2020, all disposable non-degradable plastic bags and plastic tableware will be banned except for degradable plastic products.

 

In April 2018, Australia's eight states, territories, and federal environmental ministers signed a joint agreement that set the goal of 100% recyclable, reusable, or degradable packaging nationwide by 2025.

 

In May 2018, Spain passed a royal decree on the restriction of the use of plastic bags, stipulating that Spanish merchants will not be able to provide plastic bags for free from July 1st. And from 2021, all non-biodegradable lightweight plastic bags will be banned.

 

Ø  In December 2018, the Associated Press reported that Austria had initiated legislation to ban all plastic bags that could not be completely degraded.

 

China

Ø  In April 2017, the Ministry of Science and Technology issued the “Special Plan for Scientific and Technological Innovation in the ‘13th Five-Year Plan’ Material Field”, and fully biodegradable materials were shortlisted.

 

Ø  In November 2017, the State Administration of Posts, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology and other 10 departments jointly issued the "Guiding Opinions on Collaboratively Promoting Green Packaging in the Express Delivery Industry", and proposed from the national level to promote resource conservation and waste pollution prevention in the express delivery industry. The measure proposes that “by 2020, the proportion of degradable green packaging materials will increase to 50%”.

 

Ø  In November 2017, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology issued the “Regulations for Agricultural Film Industry (2017)” to encourage the development and production of biodegradable mulch films.

 

Ø  In February 2018, the new version of the "Express Package Supplies" series of national standards was released. The new version of the national standard was implemented on September 1, 2018. For the first time, it was clearly stated that “express packaging bags should use biodegradable plastics”.

 

At present, China's measures on plastics at the national level are still in the “plastic limit” stage, but encourage qualified areas to explore “forbidden plastics”. Since 2014, Jilin Province, Henan Nanle County and Hainan Province have successively issued “bans”, prohibits the production, sale and use of non-degradable disposable products.

 

Based on the current production costs of fully biodegradable plastics, legislation is still the most important factor driving demand growth. Western Europe has the world's most stringent legislation on disposable plastics, and is currently the region with the most demand for degradable plastics, accounting for more than 50% of the global market. The main application areas of degradable plastics are food packaging, disposable tableware and plastic bags. For Asia, agricultural mulch film is also its main end market.

 

In addition to the support of countries in policy, the company's awareness of environmental protection is also enhanced, which will effectively promote the growth of the biodegradable plastics market. In 2016, Alibaba launched the “Green Plan”, aiming to replace 50% of the Alibaba platform's parcels with fully degradable packaging materials by 2020; in 2017, Jingdong launched the “Clearstream Plan”, aiming to reach 2020, Jingdong Logistics 50% or more of plastic packaging will use biodegradable materials; in 2018, Starbucks, McDonald's, and IKEA have announced that they will completely deactivate plastic straws.

 

Promising policies around the world and increased environmental awareness among companies and individuals have created new market opportunities for biodegradable plastics. Whether it is based on biomass or petrochemical routes, degradable materials are expected to make new breakthroughs.

 

Bio-based degradable plastics, mainly from grain and micro-organisms, are renewable and have no pollution to the environment after use. They are in line with the national sustainable development strategy. Although the current cost of raw materials, technology and equipment are high, the further development of the technological level and production scale will definitely drive down the cost, the development prospects are bright; the petrochemical/coalization system have multi routes to product degradable plastics, and the petrochemical/coal chemical industry has mature experience in device amplification, through large-scale installations, it has improved energy comprehensive utilization efficiency and has huge potential for cost reduction. And petrochemical/coalization projects have often been built on a scale of 100k tons or even million tons . It is an important part of the growth of biodegradable plastics.

 

Degradable Plastic Technology and Market Forum 2019 will be held on April 24-25 in Kunming, Yunan, China. The upcoming conference will discuss degradable plastics policy development trends and market opportunities, production technology and cost reduction of eight major degradable plastics - PLA, PSM, Dibasic acid glycol copolyester (PBS/PBSA/PBAT), PHA, PCL, PGA, PVA and CO2 copolymers, diversification of degradable plastic raw materials and expansion of downstream applications, development and application of seawater degradable materials, etc.